Glossary index

A model for industry of all sizes and stages of maturity, providing guidance as they incorporate, assess and enhance user safety. The principles position user safety as a fundamental design consideration. (Source: Australian eSafety Commissioner)
Offenders capturing footage of livestreamed child sexual abuse and exploitation (Source: Europol COVID Report). Capping may also include offenders capturing innocuous imagery of children and using it for sexual purposes (this imagery would then constitute sexualised images of children, see below)
A child or young person under the age of 18 years old exhibiting behaviours that are developmentally inappropriate, may be harmful towards themselves or others and/or be abusive towards another child, young person or adult (Source: Harmful Sexual Behaviours – Stuart Allardyce) (Source: Continuum of children and young people’s sexual behaviours - Simon Hackett)
Any visual or audio depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a person less than 18 years old (Source: NCMEC), whether real or not real.
Child sexual [exploitation and] abuse that is partly or entirely facilitated by technology, i.e. the internet or other wireless communications. We use the term child sexual abuse and exploitation online, or ‘internet enabled abuse’, and not online child sexual abuse and exploitation to avoid characterising abuse online as distinct from abuse offline, since for victims the abuse is often not confined to the online realm.
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. (Source: UN Palermo Protocol)
Encouraging, deceiving, or extorting a child to produce and share imagery that is sexual or used with sexual intent, or sharing such imagery produced by a child, against their wishes.
In the context of child sexual abuse and exploitation, this refers to wholly or partly artificially or digitally created sexualised images of children (Source: OHCHR Terminology Guidelines)
Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) and ‘deepfakes’ CGI is the creation of still or animated visual content with imaging software. In the context of child sexual abuse, this refers to wholly or partly artificially or digitally created sexualised images of children. ‘Deepfake’ is a form of CGI that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to replace one person’s likeness with another in photos or recorded video
A convention that requires criminalisation of all kinds of sexual offences against children. It sets out that states in Europe and beyond shall adopt specific legislation and take measures to prevent sexual violence, to protect child victims and to prosecute perpetrators. The ‘Lanzarote Committee’ is the body established to monitor whether Parties effectively implement the Lanzarote Convention. The Committee is also charged with identifying good practices, in particular during capacity-building activities. (Source: Council of Europe)
A form of CGI that uses AI to replace one person's likeness with another in recorded video. (Source: Business Insider)
The stages an individual moves through leading up to the perpetration of child sexual abuse. Pathways can vary and are not always linear. Some individuals may progress partway down an escalation pathway but ultimately desist before committing an offence.
Legislation which, as of December 2020, brings certain online communication services, such as webmail or messaging services, under the scope of the European e-Privacy Directive (Source: European Commission).
Legislation which concerns the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Source: European Data Protection Supervisor). The Directive does not contain an explicit legal basis to continue current voluntary practices to detect, report and remove child sexual abuse (Source: European Commission).
A proposal for a temporary derogation from certain provisions of the European ePrivacy Directive as regards the use of technologies by number-independent interpersonal communications service providers for the processing of personal and other data for the purpose of combatting child sexual abuse online. (Source: European Commission)
Child sexual abuse material that has not previously been detected and classified by law enforcement and/or moderators.
The G8 countries, the United States, Canada, all member states of the European Union, Israel, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and four of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, excluding China. (Source: GTA19)
Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and developing Asia. This includes three of the four newly advanced economies of the BRIC countries (excluding Russia), which are Brazil, India and China. (Source: GTA19)
A document providing guidance and support on the GSR to countries and organisations to help them deliver on it. The Model is focused on enhancing global collaboration on the response to child sexual exploitation online.
Grooming is where an individual builds a relationship, trust and emotional connection with a child or young person in order to manipulate, exploit and abuse them (Source: NSPCC).​ Online grooming is when this process is facilitated, partly or entirely, by the internet or other wireless communications.
An international organisation is an organisation established by a treaty or other instrument governed by international law and possessing its own legal personality, such as the United Nations, the World Health Organization and NATO. International organisations are composed of primarily member states, but may also include other entities, such as other international organisations. Additionally, entities (including states) may hold observer status. Examples include UNICEF and International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL).
Child sexual abuse material that has been previously detected and classified by law enforcement and/or moderators.
Transmitting child sexual abuse and exploitation in real-time over the internet. Distant live streaming is a specific form of livestreamed child sexual abuse that is ‘ordered’ by an adult viewer and usually facilitated by another adult present with the child, either coercing or forcing them into conducting sexual acts (Source: NetClean). Livestreaming can also involve coercing a child to produce and transmit sexual material in real-time, see definition above.

A document providing guidance and support on the MNR to countries and organisations to help them deliver on it. The Model is focused on helping countries to build their response to child sexual exploitation online (Source: WeProtect Global Alliance)

This includes cartoons, CGI, or drawings which graphically depict children in a sexually abusive way (Source: IWF)
Creating child sexual abuse material by in-person photography/video/audio recording, creating non-photographic (e.g. computer-generated) visual material, or manipulating existing child sexual abuse material to create new unique imagery.
Environmental, socio-economic, cultural and personal traits that may reduce the risk of a child being a victim of sexual abuse and exploitation.
When a victim faces any sexual abuse or assault subsequent to a first abuse or assault. (Source: OHCHR Terminology Guidelines) Re-victimisation may be caused by the same or a different offender to the initial victimisation
Environmental, socio-economic, cultural and personal traits that may make a child more likely to experience sexual abuse and exploitation.
Seeking child sexual abuse material on the internet and viewing or attempting to view it​.

Secondary victimisation has been defined as negative social or societal reaction not stemming directly from the criminal act but from the way institutions and other individuals deal with the victim. An example of secondary victimisation is when the victim is frequently exposed to the perpetrator.

Images that do not represent the sexual abuse of a child, but which are used for sexual purposes. Sexualisation is not always an objective criterion, and the crucial element in judging such a situation is the intent of a person to sexualise a child in an image or to make use of an image for sexual purposes. (Source: OHCHR Terminology Guidelines)
Downloading, storing, hosting, uploading and/or sharing child sexual abuse material.

Entities or individuals which have demonstrated particular expertise and competence to tackle harmful online content.

An authoritative document that clarifies what the digital environment means for children’s civil rights and freedoms, their rights to privacy, non-discrimination, protection, education, play and more. It also explains why States and other duty bearers must act, and how. (Source: LSE)
An overarching document comprising 54 articles that cover all aspects of a child’s life and set out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that all children everywhere are entitled to. It also explains how adults and governments must work together to make sure all children can enjoy all their rights. (Source: UNICEF)
A protocol that extends the measures in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in order to guarantee the protection of the child from the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (Source: UN)
A set of guidelines covering issues ranging from combating child sexual abuse material, online grooming and livestreaming of child sexual abuse to protecting victims, and industry transparency and reporting. They are designed to be flexible for all companies, regardless of their size or platform format, to implement, and provide a strong message for companies to address the scale and nature of the child sexual abuse online facilitated by their platforms. (Source: UK Government) A set of principles aiming to provide a framework to combat child sexual exploitation and abuse online and intended to drive collective action. They were developed by five Governments (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK and US), in consultation with a wide range of stakeholders including a leading group of industry representatives. (Source: WePROTECT Global Alliance)