Research and data


  • The nature and scale of the country’s current CSEA threat, vulnerability, risk and response – and the intelligence and evidence supporting these assessments – is clearly articulated. The assessment is collectively endorsed by members of the national body (see Capability 1 – Leadership) as being credibly and comprehensively informed.
  • Action to prevent and tackle CSEA is intelligence and evidence-led.The nationally-agreed assessment is used to inform the development, prioritisation and implementation of the country’s CSEA response and related policy and practice.
  • Nationally agreed responses include measurable outcomes and indicators, and progress is regularly monitored and outcomes evaluated.CSEA actions can be included within any existing policies/ plans/strategies on related issues such as child protection, violence against children or child rights.
  • Ongoing research into local CSEA-related issues is undertaken to ensure action remains current and relevant, and the quality and nature of research used to support decision making is actively monitored.
  • Compliance with international and regional CSEA-related standards is monitored and evaluated.

Why it is needed? 

  • Nationally coordinated research and analysis can produce an authoritative view of the CSEA threat, vulnerability, risk and response due to the range and number of organisations involved.
  • Continuous development and improvement in the quality of the national response to CSEA can be achieved through robust research, regular monitoring and evaluation.
  • Research and analysis will identify new or emerging trends and patterns of CSEA which will enable the development of effective policies, intervention opportunities to safeguard children, and disruption opportunities to prevent offending.
  • Intelligence and evidence-led policy and practice will ensure that activity is clearly prioritised against areas where the worst harm is being caused to children and the most significant capability gaps have been identified. 
  • Consistent and regular monitoring and progress-reporting of activities, and rigorous evaluations that measure the achievements of previously agreed indicators, will help a government to report progress against relevant international and regional standards and targets. This includes the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and its Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and Agenda 2030, particularly Sustainable Development Goal 16.2 – End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children.

Good practice 

  • At a minimum, an analysis should: assess the current CSEA threat, how it is manifested and who is most at risk; assess the country’s vulnerability to this threat; assess the current institutional response; review and evaluate the implementation of applicable legislation and policies to assess compliance with international standards and good practice; review the current ICT ecosystem response – including Hotline reporting mechanisms and industry engagement; and map the activity of other stakeholders engaged in this issue.
  • To inform an analysis, access needs to be provided to a wide range of CSEA relevant data and information from organisations represented on the national body and any other relevant stakeholders.In addition, primary data needs to be collected from a variety of sources such as children, parents, educators, law enforcers, service providers.